Yakuza Wiki
Yakuza Wiki

My dream was to become a star. But there's something I want even more than that. I want to live a happy life with the people I hold closest. Standing on this stage, I've finally realized how important that is. That's why I can't continue singing. To me, Kazuma Kiryu is... family.

— Haruka during her idol debut in Yakuza 5 Remastered

Haruka Sawamura (澤村 遥, Sawamura Haruka) is a main character in the Yakuza series. She is the adoptive niece and daughter of Kazuma Kiryu, whom she first meets and becomes close to during the events of Yakuza/Yakuza Kiwami when Kiryu helps her to locate her missing mother when she is 9. She would continue to feature subsequently in Yakuza 2/Yakuza Kiwami 2, Yakuza 3 and Yakuza 4. In Yakuza 5, she is now an idol, and appears as one of the five playable protagonists. She is a central character in Yakuza 6.

For most of the series during and after Yakuza 3, Haruka resides in Okinawa at the Morning Glory Orphanage along with eight other children Kiryu has taken in. She acts as an elder sister figure to the rest of the kids.



Haruka's appearance changes significantly throughout the series as she ages where she is first seen as a young pre-teen girl with straight shoulder-length black hair that is held back by red barrettes on the left side with bangs swept to the right side and dark brown eyes. In subsequent games, she grows her hair out long enough to reach her chest in Yakuza 3, growing it out further and tying it back into a ponytail in Yakuza 5 onwards.


Haruka's casual attire tends to consist of a red and white color scheme, consistent with Kazuma Kiryu's maroon and gray color scheme.

In Yakuza/Kiwami she wears a plain white hoodie and red pleated skirt with short black boots.

In Yakuza 2/Kiwami 2, she wears a striped red and white full-sleeved shirt beneath a hooded white vest. She also wears a jean skirt and a pair of white and black sneakers, changed to tan suede short boots in Kiwami 2.

In Yakuza 3, she has settled into her new life in Okinawa and is seen in a red tank-top with a white tank-top over it, slightly worn jean shorts, and pink sandals. When in Kamurocho, she wears a white jacket with red highlights over (presumably) the same shirt from Yakuza 2/Kiwami 2, jean shorts, black knee-high socks and brown boots.

In Yakuza 4, as she is now in middle school, she wears a navy blue sailor fuku which has a short sleeved white shirt and red scarf. Depending on where she is, she wears either her pink sandals or navy blue knee-high socks with white sneakers. A variant of this uniform has a full-sleeved deep blue shirt with black shoes, which she wears later in Yakuza 4 and in Yakuza: Dead Souls.

In Yakuza 5, Haruka wears a white hoodie half-zipped over a red shirt, her upper body attire being a lighter and more casual version of Kiryu's classic gray suit. She wears a pair of laced brown leather boots and a short jean skirt with black tights underneath. During dance practice, she wears a black tank top with a white shirt over it that has four pictures on it, black trousers with yellow stripes on the side, and matching black shoes. When doing work for her agency, she wears a full-sleeved striped black and red shirt, a thin silver chain necklace with a small gemstone hanging from it, light-gray shorts with black tights underneath, and heeled brown short boots. Haruka also has a variety of Idol costumes that she wears during her performances for both the Princess League and her debut concert, with four different on-stage costumes plus three climax heat variants.

In Yakuza 6, Haruka's standard attire is almost identical to how it was in Yakuza 5, with her tights now being swapped out for white crew socks. During her hospital stay, she wears a pink hospital uniform with gray socks. When taken to the warehouse, she is given a gray full-sleeved sweater over it and teal slippers.


Even as a young child, Haruka is a calm and level-headed girl who is often acting as a grounding force for her foster father, Kazuma Kiryu. Despite her age, Kiryu commonly leans on her for support with the other children at the orphanage. She is incredibly self-reliant and mature, seeking out work in order to help support her adoptive family, running errands on her own, cooking meals, and picking up the slack where Kiryu falls short, but still relying on him for certain matters. Her maturity extends to aspects of the nightlife, such as teasing Kiryu and Makoto Date by pretending to not know what a "soapland" is.

She can be shy and doesn't always get on well with children her own age due to her maturity. Her closest relationships tend to be with older paternal figures such as Kiryu and Shun Akiyama, though she latches onto maternal figures such as Mirei Park and Kaoru Sayama just as easily. She further expresses her inability to easily make friends her own age when she moves to Sotenbori in Yakuza 5, though it is also in part due to her growing fame.

Haruka is normally quite selfless - one of many ways she takes after Kiryu - though she does display her more selfish, bratty side several times, often relative to whenever Kiryu is faced with leaving her behind. She tends to make reckless decisions to be with those she considers family, such as running away from Sunflower Orphanage and going to Kamurocho to find her mother, or getting caught up in a fake credit card scheme due to believing Morning Glory was in danger of missing rent.

She is observant, and quick to pick up on subtleties, and usually able to tell if people are lying, which could be a result of the trauma she has experienced throughout her life. In spite of this, her optimistic outlook on life is a huge draw for others and gains the admiration of many during her brief stint as an idol.


Haruka was born to Yumi Sawamura and Kyohei Jingu in 1996. She survived an early attempt on her and Yumi's lives, and grew up away from her parents in the safety of Sunflower Orphanage.


Yakuza/Yakuza Kiwami: 1996-2005[]

Haruka is first seen observing a news report about a fight during the Tojo chairman's funeral in the aftermath of 10 billion yen being stolen from the clan before wandering off once more in the streets of Kamurocho. That night, she ends up in the aftermath of a massacre in a bar called Bacchus, where Kiryu finds her and learns she has been searching for her mother. Kiryu brings her to Serena after she passes out where, upon waking up, she reveals she was in Sunflower Orphanage and her mother is Mizuki Sawamura. She also reveals her knowledge of Ares through the letters her aunt Yumi would bring her, and is now in Kiryu's tentative custody.

The two head for the Millennium Tower, and Haruka shows Kiryu a pendant she received from Yumi the last time they met. There, they are confronted by Hiroshi Hayashi and members of the Omi Alliance, who reveal they are after the girl. Haruka is left with Makoto Date in Serena while Kiryu goes to look for the Florist of Sai. The two are later assaulted by the Majima Family near Park Boulevard and kidnap Haruka. They take her to the Yoshida Batting Center and lock her in a dark room, where a mysterious man unties her and gives her a message for Kiryu, which she delivers back at Serena.

While Haruka sleeps, Date and Kiryu discuss a photo of a dead body with signs that it's Mizuki and leave for more information. When they return, fed up with their secrecy, Haruka leaves the pendant with them and runs off, eventually getting kidnapped by men of an unknown organization and taken to Stardust. When the fighting is over, Haruka apologizes to Kiryu for running off, who apologizes in return and lets her know her mother is dead. Afterwards, Haruka is left at Purgatory with Date while Kiryu reunites with Akira Nishikiyama.

Not long after, Haruka tells Date she thinks she should go away because her mother is dead and she feels she is causing Kiryu trouble. Just then, the bathroom entrance is bombed and Haruka is kidnapped by Bloody Eye with assistance from Blue Z and White Edge. She is taken to Lau Ka Long in Yokohama and her pendant is sold to Nishikiyama. Kiryu rescues her after defeating Lau, but is arrested by Junichi Sudo for kidnapping. Date frees him and all of them flee by car, at which point he reveals the mysterious men in Stardust were connected to Kyohei Jingu, and that the body from earlier was not Mizuki.

Kiryu follows a lead and takes Haruka to Shangri-La, where they learn Shintaro Kazama's whereabouts. The two then go to Shibaura Wharf for him. There, Haruka recognizes Terada as the man who saved her at the batting center. She then meets Kazama, who tells both of them that her parents are Yumi and Jingu, and fills them in on what Yumi did in the past decade: "Mizuki" is Yumi's fake identity, and she hid Haruka in Sunflower to keep her safe from Jingu, who wanted both of them dead. The Shimano Family arrives to kill them and take Haruka, but are repelled with assistance from Osamu Kashiwagi and the Kazama Family, though Kazama dies after shielding Haruka from a grenade Shimano had thrown.

Back in Kamurocho, Kiryu fights through the Nishikiyama Family to reach the Millennium Tower, where he fights the MIA while Haruka hides. They eventually reach the top floor where Haruka finally reunites with Yumi. Shortly after, Jingu arrives to deal with them, but Kiryu takes a bullet to the shoulder meant for Haruka and Yumi reveals a bomb to stop Jingu from going any further.

Nishikiyama enters the fray following Jingu's defeat, but is defeated by Kiryu. After Yumi plants the bomb to destroy Jingu's money, Kiryu is shot by Jingu, but before he can shoot again, Haruka stands in front of the way, though it is Yumi who takes the bullet after running in front of both of them. Nishikiyama pushes Jingu into the vault with his money before he can finish off Kiryu and detonates the bomb, killing Jingu and himself. Yumi bleeds out, with Haruka crying out for her. Police surround them with the intention to arrest Kiryu, who is reminded by Date he still has Haruka left to live for. He hands over his position as chairman to Terada, and starts his new life together with Haruka.

Yakuza 2/Yakuza Kiwami 2: 2006-2007[]

Kiryu and Haruka have been living peacefully in Tokyo for the past year. On the anniversary of the 10 billion yen incident, they visit the graves of their loved ones who died in the chaos. Their prayers are interrupted by Yukio Terada seeking Kiryu's advice. After Terada is shot by Omi Alliance members, she accompanies Kiryu in the ambulance, where he "dies" from his wounds. Understanding that her adoptive father's sense of duty is calling him to action, she says she will stay in Sunflower Orphanage for the time being, asking him to come back for her when he's done.

Days later, Toranosuke Sengoku, Patriarch of the Omi Alliance's Sengoku Family, finds her and has her kidnapped in a scheme to eliminate Kiryu. Kiryu goes up Osaka Castle to save her, fighting though various enemies including tigers, but Ryuji Goda unexpectedly comes in to kill Sengoku, acknowledging that the latter had played too dirty by involving Haruka. Kiryu keels over, and Kaoru Sayama arrives to help him, the trio returning to Sotenbori after.

As this is Haruka's first time in Kansai, Kiryu takes her around Sotenbori, eventually seeing a famous celebrity. The producer she was talking with notices Haruka as someone with great potential to be a star. Haruka learns Kiryu is about to sign a deal with the producer, but she is not happy with the decision. She tells Kiryu she doesn't want to be alone and is okay with the danger he'll put her in. They leave but get the producer a substitute star to keep him away from them.

Sayama drives them to Kamurocho, with Kiryu sound asleep in the van. They are interrupted by several trucks carrying Jingweon members chasing after them, Kiryu leaving the van to fight them off while Sayama drives Haruka away from them. They arrive in Kamurocho and leave Haruka in Serena to take care of business. Haruka is later with Makoto Date, who tries to get Kiryu off Kamurocho Hills with a helicopter, but are forced to leave when they realize there isn't enough time before the bomb explodes. When everyone realizes that the bomb on the Hills was never activated to begin with, Haruka pays her respects at Terada's grave for sparing Kiryu.

Yakuza 3: 2007-2009[]

In January 2007, Kiryu and Haruka say their farewells to the friends they met over the past year before they move to Morning Glory Orphanage in Okinawa. There, Haruka takes on much of the responsibilities as the role of an older sister to the other orphans such as having everyone follows house rules, ensuring discussions don't devolve into arguments, or letting Kiryu know of a problem she can't solve.

In March 2008, Haruka shows Kiryu another eviction notice the orphanage received and points out that Ryudo Family members were spotted frequently around the orphanage. Kiryu tells Haruka he will resolve the situation, then he goes into town after them. Haruka later walks in on him watching a news report about proposed development projects by Yoshinobu Suzuki and Ryuzo Tamiya that require their land, and is worried about having to leave Okinawa, but Kiryu assures her they'll be staying.

One year later, in March 2009, Rikiya arrives at the orphanage with news that their boss, Shigeru Nakahara, has been shot. She accompanies him and Kiryu to the hospital, where she learns from Saki that the shooter looks exactly like Kiryu's foster father Shintaro Kazama, and had also shot Daigo Dojima. She joins Kiryu on the beach that night after the others go to sleep and asks if he will go to Kamurocho to resolve the matter. She offers to take care of Saki while Nakahara is in the hospital and Kiryu is away, and Kiryu also entrusts Rikiya to her, saying Kamurocho is too dangerous for him (though he would end up following Kiryu anyway). The next day, after playing baseball with the others and a boy named Akira Miyamura, Haruka brings Saki to the orphanage and gives Kiryu a plane ticket.

Haruka, along with the other orphans and the Ryudo Family, greet Kiryu when he returns. Later, she starts acting suspicious and walks around town talking to shady men. He beats them up and learns Haruka had involved herself in an illegal counterfeit operation because she overheard Rikiya and Mikio discussing financial issues, but they clarify they meant their family office, not Morning Glory.

Kiryu leaves the orphanage to confront Joji Kazama, during which the orphanage is attacked by Yoshitaka Mine and the Tamashiro Family of the Tojo Clan. Haruka attempts to protect the others and slaps Mine for his disparaging remarks about their adoptive father, but she is slapped and knocked over in return. She and the others can only watch as their home is demolished. After Kiryu returns from dealing with the Tamashiro family, she joins him in his high-speed flight to Kamurocho. When they arrive at the Tenkaichi Street gate, Haruka correctly guesses that Kiryu doesn't expect himself to survive this time. She is left in Serena with Makoto Date. She later accompanies Joji in a helicopter to the roof of Touto University Hospital, where Kiryu was fighting.

After Kiryu defeats Mine, he sees off Yuya and Kazuki while Haruka waits past Theatre Square when he is suddenly met with a weathered Goh Hamazaki. While Kiryu attempts to talk sense into Hamazaki, the latter suddenly stabs him in the gut and becomes immediately restrained by the two hosts. Kiryu is treated for his injury and the two return to the rebuilt Morning Glory Orphanage, but Haruka is left traumatized by his near-death experience.

Yakuza 4: 2010[]

Now attending junior high school, Haruka continues to be one of the main caretakers for the children at Morning Glory. One day while taking Mame for a walk, she discovers Taiga Saejima washed up on the beach near the orphanage after his escape, and tends to his injuries along with Kiryu. She later witnesses Kiryu and Saejima fight, her attempt at trying to stop them ending with her being knocked over. When she hears the name "Hamazaki" mentioned, her trauma from the stabbing last year resurfaces and she expresses her doubts as to whether Saejima is trustworthy or not. Kiryu convinces her that a lot can change in a year and he would help anyone, including Hamazaki, as long as they were good people. At around 3 AM, Haruka gives Saejima a bag Kiryu said he found at the beach and he proceeds to continue his journey.

After Hamazaki washes up on the Morning Glory Beach and approaches the orphanage, Haruka sees him and is terrified. When Kiryu introduces him to the children, she tells him to stay away, showing hostility for what took place the previous year. Hamazaki agrees with her assessment of him and keeps his distance, and Haruka runs off to the beach in disbelief of Kiryu forgiving him so easily. There, she tries to dissuade Kiryu from going to Tokyo, telling him she just wants him to be safe. Hamazaki assures her that Kiryu will be staying and the two go to the police station so Hamazaki can turn himself in, but the events that play out cause Kiryu to leave for Tokyo anyway.

Later, when Hamazaki is shot in the back, Haruka attends him in the hospital, suspecting he was injured helping her adoptive father. He requests she tell Kiryu and Saejima to "protect the Tojo Clan from the police". Haruka calls Kiryu and passes on the message to him, also asking if her suspicions are correct. Kiryu confirms they are, and she expresses regret at having been so distrusting of him.

She is seen with Kiryu in front of the Tojo Clan headquarters before he accompanies Saejima for the inauguration ceremony of the Saejima Family. At some point around this time, she would become acquainted with Shun Akiyama.

Yakuza 5: 2011-2012[]

In early summer 2011, Haruka overhears the conversation between Kiryu and Mirei Park, who is trying to recruit her into her idol company Dyna Chair. Kiryu is persuaded to let Haruka join, on the condition that he leaves the orphanage and they both keep Haruka's past and any involvement with him hidden from public knowledge, and with the assurance that she will take care of the orphanage after his departure. Haruka says she wants to stay and pleads for Kiryu not to leave. After he fails to dodge her questions, he lets Haruka know that the other orphans are willing to drop out of school to find work to allow Morning Glory Orphanage to stay afloat, but he does not want them to make that sacrifice. Touched by everyone's feelings, Haruka relents and decides to go along with Park. In mid-2012, Kiryu eventually moves to Nagasugai and Haruka heads out to Sotenbori to become an idol.

By December 2012, Haruka becomes one of the finalists of the Princess League competition along with T-Set, an idol duo. She wins the first round after days of training and practicing. As the second round nears, Park fires Haruka's dance coach Kan Ogita for standing up to her increasing demands. She finds her new dance coach Christina and proves herself to him after having a dance battle. She later strengthens her bond with Park, going out shopping, playing arcade games, and being entrusted with her pen and a letter from her ex-husband, who turns out to be Goro Majima.

Shortly before the second round begins, Park is found dead due to an apparent suicide. While mourning, Shun Akiyama arrives to ask her for more details and the two recognize each other. After explaining her situation, she asks to join Akiyama in his investigation. They uncover the foul play behind her death, learning that her former dance coach Ogita did indeed kill her and her suicide note was forged. When Akiyama fights Kamon Kanai, she throws a fire extinguisher at him and throws another one to Akiyama for assistance.

Haruka continues to participate in the Princess League competition, after which she is kidnapped by Kanai for information about Park's letter and is saved by Naoki Katsuya before he gets the chance to harm her, and Katsuya returns her to Dyna Chair after she passes out. After regaining consciousness, she gets a call from Katsuya asking for the letter Park gave her. After he threatens the orphanage, she is willing to meet up with him at Shin-Osaka station and give up the letter if he is alone, but suddenly encounters Kanai, who went against Katsuya's orders to stay behind. Akiyama saves Haruka and the pair return to Kamurocho.

After a rescheduling and planning to perform along with T-Set as the idol group Dream Line, she continues her training regimen. The day before the concert, Shigeki Baba interrupts a session and asks to see Haruka, and relays a message from Kiryu to her. When asked why Haruka had no qualms about listening to a stranger like him, she simply replies that he looked like someone Kiryu would trust.

On the day of the concert, Haruka performs mostly uninhibited, not knowing that Tsubasa Kurosawa had hired Baba to assassinate her after Majima refused to do so on principle. During an intermission, she finds the conflict between the Tojo Clan and Omi Alliance unravelling, and spots Kiryu in a news broadcast. This changes her mind about continuing to be an idol. After debuting Dream Line's first song, she announces her retirement and reveals her past with Kiryu, unable to leave her family behind as she rises to success. Haruka leaves the Dome soon after and eventually finds Kiryu on a snowy road, nearly unconscious and severely battered from his fight with Masato Aizawa. They reunite for the first time in nearly two years, but Kiryu's wounds have already been opened for too long and he passes out.

Yakuza 6: 2012-2017[]

Immediately after Haruka finds Kiryu, she takes him to the Touto University Hospital, and waits in his room until police then enter to arrest Kiryu. Haruka returns to Morning Glory Orphanage, but without Kiryu as he was sentenced to prison. Six months later, Haruka visits him, where he tells her he can make parole in three more years. Back at the orphanage, a discussion of background checks prompts Haruka to check the news. Much to her horror, the media has found where she lives and is now directing backlash towards the orphanage as well. Overwhelmed with guilt and regret, she decides to disappear to not further involve her adoptive siblings. Shortly after, she goes dark on social media and deactivates her phone plan to prevent anyone from tracking her down. Her efforts are successful as no further articles involving Morning Glory are published.

Haruka takes a boat to Onomichi, having nowhere else to go. Kiyomi Kasahara is the first to make contact with her and offers her a place to live as well as a part time job at Snack Kiyomi. The townsfolk take a strong liking to her and are kind enough to keep her past a secret from outsiders. She has a friendly relationship with the Hirose Family. Circa late 2014, she stumbles upon Yuta Usami beating up a customer from the previous night. When asked why, he reveals to her the customer is a paparazzi who was stalking her for a while. Yuta destroys the camera and asks her to stay in Onomichi, as everyone knows her secret and will keep her safe, and hopes to see her around later.

Yuta and Haruka briefly date afterward and conceive a child after sharing one night together. Shu Tatsukawa and Koji Masuzoe pressure Haruka into an abortion when they suspect her pregnancy, causing her to learn Yuta was the backup heir to the Saio Triad. With Toru Hirose's help, she disappears. Hirose takes her to a small village, watching over her while she is there. She tells him she intends to return to Okinawa once she can confidently raise her child, feeling she could then face her family without shame.

During her time away from Okinawa, she uses payphones to call home occasionally. The calls stop around the time Haruto is born. Haruka stays in hiding for roughly a year after his birth, until Tatsukawa finds them and lures her to Kamurocho under the false promise that he would help her regardless of his orders. In December 2016, Haruka arrives in Kamurocho, but is not fully trusting of Tatsukawa. She refuses to get into his car, and Tatsukawa tries to forcefully take Haruto from her. When she escapes, Tatsukawa follows her in his car, but accidentally hits her, causing her to fall into a coma from her injuries, but leaving Haruto unscathed as she shielded him.

She is taken to Touto University Hospital. The doctors are successful in saving her life, but she remains comatose. Kiryu takes Haruto in his care while Haruka recovers. Sometime during her treatment, she is moved to a police-owned hospital in order to ensure her safety. She eventually wakes up from her coma with Yuta and Haruto present, Kiryu visiting her not long after in a teary reunion. Kiryu says he cannot bring himself to lecture her for disappearing after seeing her alive and well, and Haruka apologizes to him for running away. When Kiryu needs to borrow Yuta for something, Haruka requests he come back in one piece.

After Kiryu and Yuta leave, Haruka and Haruto are abducted by the Yomei Alliance. The two are held hostage, forcing Kiryu and Tsuyoshi Nagumo to take a beating from Tsuneo Iwami and Katsumi Sugai. The remaining Hirose Family members arrive and free her, allowing Kiryu to defeat Iwami, but Sugai takes out a gun to try killing them. Haruka protects Haruto and Yuta attempts to shield both of them, but Kiryu keeps them all safe and sustains grievous injuries in doing so. He tells Haruka to bring her new family happiness and passes out in Yuta's arms, with Haruka crying out for him.

One month later, Haruka has fully recovered and alongside Yuta and Haruto, is saying goodbye to the people of Onomichi, her adoptive father thought to be dead by everyone present. In Okinawa, the couple and the other orphans of Morning Glory are watching Haruto walk. Haruto reaches out and Haruka turns her gaze to where he points, but turns back at him after seeing no one. Unbeknownst to them all, Kiryu had faked his death for their safety and was secretly observing as well.

Other Media[]

Yakuza: Dead Souls: 2011[]

A letter arrives from Morning Glory with an invitation to a retirement party. Kiryu sends Haruka to go in his stead because he couldn't leave the other children alone, however the letter was a trap to lure Kiryu to Kamurocho and Haruka is kidnapped by Tetsuo Nikaido. Phoning Kiryu to prove he had kidnapped Haruka, Nikaido lures Kiryu into the zombie outbreak trying to get revenge for what the Tojo did to the Omi Alliance.

At the end of the game, Kiryu and Ryuji Goda arrived and rescued Haruka. They then get Takoyaki from Ryuji's store.


An NPC in Smile Burger reading Haruka's article in Yakuza: Like a Dragon

  • Haruka is the first playable female character in the series. She is also the youngest playable character, at the age of 16 during her segments.
  • In Judgment and Yakuza: Like a Dragon, the newspapers read by NPCs contain Haruka's article from 2013 featured in Yakuza 6.
  • In Judgment, two figurines of Haruka are available as DLC.
  • Haruka and the other kids from Morning Glory Orphanage affectionately call Kiryu "Uncle Kaz" (おじさん, ojisan, lit. "Mister" or "Uncle").
  • Haruka has been abducted a total of six times throughout the canon series; three of those abductions happened while she was supervised by Makoto Date.
  • Haruka appears as a guest character in the following video games: LINE Rangers, Kyoutou Kotoba RPG: Kotodaman and Taiko No Tatsujin DX.
    • Her likeness was featured in Persona 5: Dancing in Starlight as a DLC costume for Haru Okumura.
  • Haruka is mentioned in Project X Zone 2 when Kiryu and Majima talk with Alisa from the God Eater series about her clothes.
  • Haruka's model in each game is always an adult model shrunken appropriately to her age. When modified to an adult size, she shares her proportions with other adults, which can be demonstrated with various mods in Dragon Engine games.


  1. Kiryu claims that Haruka is 19 in Yakuza 6, which takes place in early December 2016. She already turned 9 by December 6, 2005, the day Kiryu first met her, and Kiryu took 2 days to reach Onomichi before stating her age to Kiyomi Kasahara; thus, her birthday falls between December 4 at the earliest and December 6 at the latest.

See also[]